The ADDIE Model is an approach used by instructional designers and content developers to create instructional course materials. The model has been adopted as the standard method by many instructional designers because of its flexibility.


The ADDIE Model of instruction systems design (ISD) was first developed for the U.S. Army during the 1970s by Florida State University’s Center for Educational Technology. ADDIE is an acronym for the five-phase courseware development program of analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation.

ADDIE was later adapted for use by all branches of the U.S. Armed Forces. It has become a widely used and frequently modified best practice within the private sector. It is often employed for compliance training and other learning events that are not time sensitive.

One of the attractions of the ADDIE Model is its flexibility. For example, it can be used with both individualized and traditional instruction. In addition, its phases are frequently modified to suit user needs, and it can be employed in combination with other models such as Rapid Application Development (RAD) and the Successive Approximation Model (SAM).

The most common disadvantage of ADDIE is that it is considered a linear process for instructional system design and more costly and time consuming than the newer approaches referred to as Agile development. This complaint has led to innovative approaches that follow the Agile models mentioned above.

Here is an explanation of the ADDIE Model’s five phases:

Analysis. In the first phase, the instructional challenge of the course is detailed, objectives are established and issues such as learner skill level are identified.

Design. A variety of concerns are addressed at this phase to achieve optimal courseware design and systematic development of the training program. They include learning objectives, content, assessment instruments, exercises, subject matter analysis, lesson planning and media selection. Each is pursued under a logical and orderly method of identifying, developing and evaluating plans for meeting instructional goals.

Development. Courseware designers and developers create the content following the design phase’s blueprinted. That includes design of storyboards and graphics, as well as integration of any eLearning technologies.

Implementation. This phase focuses on developing procedures for training both facilitators and learners. Facilitators training should explain the curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery and testing procedures. Student preparation includes training the use of new software and hardware, and registration. Preparation of learning materials including books, tools, CD-ROMs and software is conducted, and the website tested.

Evaluation. The evaluation phase is ongoing throughout the design process. Its purpose is to ensure that all stated goals of the learning process will meet the specified needs. Another objective of this phase is to identify on-the-job performance following completion of the course, and to ensure that business needs are met.

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